10. How to Handle SILKYPIX® Perfectly

10.1. Techniques

10.1.1. Speed up Refreshing of Preview

In order to speed up the preview display, this software first displays the outline preview, while executing the development preview processing in the background. The development preview is performed for each part of the image, which replaces the corresponding part of the coarse preview one by one.
However, when you want to adjust development parameters based on the developed image, you must wait until the development preview is completed.

We will describe about techniques for reducing the time that is required for completing the "Fomal development preview".

(1) Displaying required portion
Display only a required portion of a scene by reducing a window. then the developing time becomes shorter.
Since this software is designed to develop and update an image for each part of the image one by one, reduction of a window decreases the time for developing.

(2) Increasing display magnification
Increasing the display magnification to display the required portion of an image. This has the same effect as the case (1).

(3) Set the Color distortion to 0.
Color distortion in this software reduces not only high-frequency color noise but also low-frequency color noise. This function incurs high CPU usage.
Therefore, set the parameter of color distortion to 0 when adjusting other parameters. After that, use the color distortion, so that you can reduce the time for completing the development preview.

(4) The "Demosaicing sharpness" setting in the "Development settings" sub-control are lowered.
Demosaicing sharpness settings can be adjusted continually by the development engine this software uses. In most cases, setting to raise the Demosaicing sharpness settings brings good results, but processing is slowed.
For this reason, as well as the case of the color distortion, set the slider to the "min" side when adjusting other parameters. Then time reduction is achieved.
Please also refer to "10.1.4. Relationship between Demosaicing Sharpness and Picture Quality".

Also related to this, you can set it so that full development previews are not shown in minimized display and to control the CPU load and memory consumed. Please see "9.2.3. Preview window".

10.1.2. Utilizing Difference between Exposure Biases of Camera and SILKYPIX®

The exposure bias on cameras slows down shutter speed, opens the aperture and in some cases reduces light with ND filters, thereby changing the amount of light falling on the image sensor.
On the other hand, exposure bias when developing corrects the exposure recorded in RAW data and develops the photograph.

For example, consider performing exposure bias of +1.0EV.
By performing exposure bias of +1.0EV on a camera, the amount of light recorded on the image sensor is doubled.
Performing exposure bias of +1.0EV at the time of development, development processing is performed with the amount of light recorded in RAW data doubled.
As a result, both are the same, but they each have their own advantages and disadvantages.

A drawback of increasing exposure bias when developing is that noise is doubled. Compared to exposure bias on the camera, you may result in a photograph with a bit more noise.
However, there are huge merits to exposure bias when developing. One is that it gives you the ability to control over exposed highlighted portions.
When performing exposure bias on a camera, if the exposure bias is too large, it may not record over exposed highlighted portions. There is no information for portions that go over the image sensors dynamic limit, even in RAW data, and there is nothing to retrieve when developing, even when developing with lowered sensitivity. (*1)

Also, the appropriate amount of exposure bias must be determined and settings on the camera be changed when performing exposure bias on the camera. You can reduce the time and labor when shooting and concentrate more on taking your photograph by performing exposure bias at the time of raw development.
Furthermore, exposure bias on the camera often influences the shutter speed, and you must take care concerning camera shake or the subject moving.
Increasing sensitivity during raw development normally lessens noise if at around +1.0EV. This is considered an effective photographic method for digital photography.

Also when it is difficult to determine an exact exposure under shooting conditions such as backlight or so on, take a picture with a little underexposed value using the exposure bias.
For more details, please see '10.2.1. Photography without Backlight Compensation'.
There is a more advanced technique. When it is so dark that you have to use a slower shutter value or a faster lens, one smart way is to try to use a low shutter speed or aperture value to result in an underexposed image. For more details, please see '10.1.3 Utilizing Difference between ISO Speed Adjustment of Camera and Exposure Bias of SILKYPIX® Developer Studio 6'.

*1 Depending on the type of camera, developing with a lowered sensitivity of around –0.5 to 1.0EV is possible, and you may be able to save skipped portions, but many cameras cannot save whiteouts with lowered sensitivity at development.

10.1.3. Utilizing Difference between ISO Speed Adjustment of Camera and Exposure Bias of SILKYPIX®

The ISO film speed adjustment on the camera usually changes it at an analog level before digitizing the voltage output from an image sensor.

For example, with the ISO film speed doubled, information is doubled and sampled with an amplifier from the image sensor in the camera.
Light quantity recorded by an image sensor does not change just because the ISO film speed is adjusted. Doubling the ISO film speed halves the light quantity recorded by the image sensor.
There are hardly any differences from performing developments with an increased sensitivity of +1.0.

For example, compare photographing with a camera set at ISO 400 and photographing set at ISO 200 and exposure bias of –1.0EV (one step under). Other photographic conditions such as shutter speed and diaphragm stop are the same.
The amount of light recorded by the image sensor for these two photographic methods is the same. The RAW data photographed at ISO 400 is converted and recorded at double the amount of light.
When developing the RAW data photographed at ISO 200 into a photograph, sensitivity must be raised to +1.0EV. However, photographs developed with increased sensitivity are almost the same as photographs taken with ISO 400.
When comparing these two photographs, the amount of light recorded by the image sensor is the same and both are processed in terms of double the amount of light in the end, and the only difference is whether it was performed in the camera or at the time of development.(*1)

When set and photographed at ISO 400, if highlights are ignored, it is impossible to restore them. However, the possibility of being able to save them by adjusting sensitivity rises if you set and photographed with ISO 200 at an exposure bias of –1.0EV (one step under).

As one application, it becomes possible to confidently take photographs of a dark subject that you have to take by raising the ISO film speed on the camera and working with the shutter speed and diaphragm stop to underexpose on purpose.
Please also see "10.2.3. Turning Exposure Compensation Dial into ISO Speed Dial".

*1 The processing of photographs at ISO 400 and doubled in the camera can perform processing to remove noise in the camera at an analog level, which is slightly advantageous for the image quality.
However, the difference is not that great, such that the technique of underexposed photography has merits, such as when there is a possibility that highlights may be skipped.

10.1.4. Relationship between Demosaicing Sharpness and Picture Quality

This software allows you to adjust the resolving power parameter of demosaic process. This parameter is called "Demosaicing sharpness" in SILKYPIX® Developer Studio 6.
If you increase the "Demosaicing sharpness", a resolution gets higher and a developing time gets longer.
If you decrease the "Demosaicing sharpness", a resolution gets lower, however, a developing time gets shorter.
Therefore, in order to obtain good quality, we recommend you to set the "Demosaicing sharpness" to a certain large value (about 80).
It is almost correct to think that if you set the "Demosaicing sharpness" higher and higher, a better and better quality picture can be created. But if a RAW data contains a lot of noise, there is a possibility of resulting in highlighted noise.
In this case, you should set the "Demosaicing sharpness" lower.

When you take a photo of a fine patterned object, spurious resolution may be occurred. Lower demosaicing sharpness can reduce such spurious resolution.
However, lower demosaicing sharpness causes color noises on a fine patterned object. In such a case, you also adjust "color distortion" on "Noise reduction" sub-control to improve a photo quality.

10.1.5. Adjustment for Over-saturation

When taking the high saturated object, the color has sometimes become white in the highlight portion.
This phenomenon is called "Over-saturation" in this manual.
This section describes how to adjust for over-saturation.

(1) Reason for Over-saturation
In the first place, why does the over-saturation occur?

When the surface of the object is smooth, you observe the light reflection directly and sometimes it looks like white. This is not the "over-saturation".
The "over-saturation" is the phenomenon that the object has been recorded as white by the camera, which looks like the saturated red with human eyes.
It is caused by having exceeded the light which can be recorded when taking photograph or when developing image.
At the digital image, there is a limit in the lightness which can be recorded. This limit becomes lower as a color becomes more saturated.

It is described by using R, G, and B in this section. The monitor of the PC makes the color by mixing R,G, and B pixels which are adjusted brightness.
On the assumption that a red pixel emits the darkest light in R=0, and it emits the brightest light in R=255. Regarding G and B, assumption is the same.
The brightness which the human being feels is the sum of the brightness of R, G, and B. (*1)

For example, in a case of white color, R, G, and B have the same emitted brightness. In other words, when R=100, G=100, and B=100, the color looks white.
This means white color (achromatic color) has a representation range from R=0, G=0, B=0 to R=255, G=255, B=255.
As the converted brightness, the representation range is from 0 to 765(=255+255+255).

Next, let's consider light red color (pink). In a case of light red, R has a larger value than that of G and B. For example, R=200, G=100, and B=100.
At this time, the values of G and B are a half of the R value. When this ratio is maintained, the color looks the same.
For example, in a case of darkened light red, the values are R=100, G=50 and B=50. When it makes brighter, the values become R=200, G=100, and B=100.
When it makes more brighter, for example, in a case of the most brightest light red, the values become R=254, G=127, and B=127. (*2)

From this condition, if adjusting the color much more brighter, what will happen? On paper, the values should become R=300, G=150, and B=150.
However, since R=300 cannot be represented in reality, then the actual value of brightness becomes R=255. As the result, the three values are R=255, G=150 and B=150 in this case.
What about setting the color much more brighter? The values R=510, G=255 and B=255 become R=255, G=255 and B=255. This is pure white color!

Roughly speaking, the "over-saturation" occurs in this way.
In case of this light red color, the limit values that the hue does not change are R=254, G=127 and B=127. And the brightness that human eyes can sense is 254+127+127=508.
This means that although the brightness of white can be represented up to 765, the brightness of light red can be represented only up to 508.

How about a case of deeper red color? For example, let's consider a case of deeper red with values as R=200, G=50 and B=50.
The values of the most brightest deeper red that can be represented are R=252, G=63 and B=63. This means that its maximum brightness is 252+63+63=378.
Therefore, when a color is deeper and deeper, brighter representation cannot be possible.
So when an exposure bias is adjusted to a light color subject, the "over-saturation" occurs at a deep color subject.
This is the reason for the "over-saturation" occurrence.

(2) Adjustment for Over-saturation 1 (Exposure bias)
You can adjust "exposure bias" parameter against "over-saturation".
Since the over-saturation is caused by adjusting the exposure bias to a brighter color, you can ease the over-saturation by adjusting a exposure bias to the certain level.
However, in many cases, a light color subject looks too dark.

(3) Adjustment for Over-saturation 2 (Saturation adjustment)
You can adjust "saturation" parameter on the "Color" sub-control against "over-saturation".
When "saturation" is lower, a brighter representation is possible. So by lowering the "saturation", you can ease the over-saturation.
However, in many cases, when lowering "saturation" as easing over-saturation for high saturated color, a very light color image is created because saturation at the other portions becomes too low.

(4) Adjustment for Over-saturation 3 (Highlight controller)
This software has a function to control the method for clipping the color of the region where brightness exceeds any representation limit of R, G, and B in a range.
For example, let's consider the former example of the brightness with values of R=300, G=150, and B=150.

This software internally processes the color in wider range color space than the actual representable range. For this reason, this software can keep the real color values such as R=300, G=150 and B=150 internally.
However, when the values are outputted, they are clipped in the range of 255 for each R, G, and B.

If only the R is clipped to 255 simply, hue, saturation and brightness are out of balance. Its original brightness is 300+150+150=600.
When the "highlight controller" is set to give brightness highest priority, the color clipping is executed with priority of brightness 600 instead of color.
For example, the values are R=255, G=173 and B=172 (*3), and brightness can be maintained as 600.
However, this increases "over-saturation" level.

When the "highlight controller" is set to give brightness lowest priority (give saturation highest priority), the color clipping is executed with priority of color in this time.
Here we omit the explanation with numerical values in case of priority of color. But please remember that the default value of "Chroma-Luminance" parameter is 25, and you can ease "over-saturation" by setting this value lower.
Here we omit the explanation with numerical values in case of priority of color.
Since in case of priority of color, the default brightness is 64, you can remember that modification of over-saturation is possible by setting the value from 64 to 0.
In addition, in this case, you can also adjust the priority between saturation and hue. For details, please refer to '4.9. Highlight controller'.

(5) Adjustment for Over-saturation 4 (Fine color controller)
By using the "highlight controller", you can ease an over-saturation region, however, this does not have sufficient effect to save a high-saturated color completely.
Rather, as remaining a highlighted portion, this function is very effective when you adjust its representation.

The "fine color controller" function can provide more effective method.
The method is to lower both saturation and lightness of only the color with which the over-saturation has occurred.
By adjusting only the color with which the over-saturation has occurred, it is possible to execute the adjustment of over-saturation without giving any effect to the white portion that has low saturation. Please refer to '4.10. Fine Color Controller' for the use of the function.

(6) Adjustment for Over-saturation 5 (Dynamic range)
This function allows you to ease over-saturation by compressing gradation in the area of the highlights.
Please refer to '4.9.4. Dynamic range' for more details.

*1 In reality, sensitivity of human eye differs according to a hue. Although the brightness which the human being feels is not a sum of the brightness of R, G, and B actually, we simplified the matter for the sake of explanation.
*2 Since the non-linear characteristics which is called gamma is applied to the actual RGB data (for example, sRGB data), the reality is not so simple as such. The explanation is on the assumption that the RGB value is a linear value and the values of R, G, and B are in proportion to the light quantity that is emitted from a monitor.
*3 Actual processing of this software is more complicated. It is because that the actual lightness is not as R+G+B (*1), and the gamma characteristics is applied (*2). In order to help users understand the functional operations, we just simplified the actual matters.

10.1.6. Color Gamut and Adjustment Outside of Color Gamut

There are some cases that exceed the presentable color range, when taking photograph of the high saturation color or when increasing "saturation" during development process.
The 'Highlight/Shadow/Outside of the Color Gamut Warnings' function gives a warning regarding the portion that exceeds the presentable color gamut.

This software can handle two color spaces such as sRGB and Adobe RGB. In theses color spaces, all of existing colors can not be expressed.
On the other hand, when taking a photograph with a RAW file, a camera can capture the colors accurately that are in the color gamut which is much wider than that of the case that these color spaces can handle.
On this account, in a case of a flower etc. with high saturation, colors may exceed the color gamut (presentable color range) that these color spaces can handle.

This software can handle the color gamut completely which a camera can capture and also this software can clip the color that exceeds the range at the final stage of the development processing.
The warning function for out of color gamut gives a warning to a portion with a clipped color.
Since the colors that are out of the color gamut are clipped and compressed into the color gamut of sRGB and Adobe RGB, details are compressed as if they are like being crashed.
Even as the over-saturation does not occur, if you feel that details of the highly saturated portion are lost, you need to check whether colors are out of the color gamut or not.
Even if the colors that are out of the color gamut become darkened by adjusting the "exposure bias", a warning is still given, not like the case of the over-saturation.
Describing with the values of R, G, and B, it is a highly saturated portion as if one or even two among R, G, and B takes a negative value.

For example, although a color with values as R=255, G=0 and B=0 is the most saturated red that can be represented in this RGB color space, a camera has captured red color with much higher saturation. When it is developed, it may have values like R=255, G=-20, and B=-20. Of course, such a color cannot be outputted, and it is clipped. So details with high saturation are looked like being crashed.
For example, even if an actual flower has subtle details of saturation between R=255, G=-20, B=-20 and R=255, G=-30, B=-30, its development result has exactly the same colors without gradation.
However, since this software keeps the colors that are out of the color gamut, the details can be restored by lowering their saturation.
You can try to lower the saturation until the warning disappears by using "saturation" parameter on the "Color" sub-control or by using thefine color controller.

The colors in such a range are difficult for printing devices such as a printer and so forth. Especially, bright magenta and blue-red colors between red and blue are the most difficult colors for printing devices.
In addition, a monitor for a PC can display bright colors with high saturation, however, these colors are difficult for a printer and other printing devices.
A monitor is a light-emitting device but printed materials display colors by absorbing light.
For this reason, when presenting colors with high saturation, the colors are darkened.
As a result of printing, if the colors are pressed as if they are like being crashed, lowering lightness might be effective.

10.1.7. Sharpening Image

When the photograph is not sharp and you feel that it is lacking vigor and sleepy, please adjust a development parameter according to the following.

(1) Exposure Bias
When you develop the RAW data, you can reproduce the scene by taking out only a necessary part from the wide lightness information captured by a camera at the time of development.
If you take a photograph by JPEG, you have to set the exposure bias to decide brightness of a photograph at the time of taking a photograph. However, if you take a photograph by RAW, you can adjust brightness at the time of development after taking a photograph.
Like the "Crop tool" function that cuts out unnecessary portion, the adjusting exposure bias means cropping the range of lightness that you want to represent.
Please adjust the portion where you want to express to moderate brightness by adjusting "exposure bias". We hope that your picture can restore its lightness and vigor.

(2) Tone Adjustment
By adjusting the "tone", you can determine how to compress or expand the lightness that a camera captured.
First, please set "contrast" parameter larger. This is the operation which adjusts white portion more white and black portion more black, and narrows the range in which you want to represent and expands to the device presentable range. A picture might have vigor by this operation.

Now, where is a boundary for determining contrast emphasis? That is contrast center.
your picture is bright, you can move the contrast center up and make contrast around the bright portion. If it is dark, you can move the contrast center down and make contrast around the dark portion.
How is it? Hopefully the problem is improved.

If flare appears on a picture or if you receive impression that it is dusty, you can try to increase a black level.
Do you feel that a picture is tightened?
If you feel that a picture seems to be a sleepy because of backlight, a distant view and so forth, you can tighten black color by increasing the black level.

(3) Sharpness Adjustment
If a picture has been adjusted up to this level, perhaps the picture is cool now.
As the rest, focus is almost ...
From now on, let's adjust sharpness of outline by enlarging a focused area in a picture (more than 100% display magnification).
First of all, let's maximize the sharpening.
The outline of a picture becomes clear, and you might have well-shaped impression.
However, if you look at it very carefully, you might discover that a noise was also increased simultaneously and the outline which was originally very clear seemed to be unnatural because it was too much emphasized.
In order to delete this unnatural impression, you should reduce the sharpness. Now adjustment is over.

10.1.8. How to Take Advantage of Dynamic Range

SILKYPIX® Developer Studio 6 allows you to control "dynamic range" recorded in RAW data.
Almost all DSLR cameras have some top margin they can record a little lighter energy of ray than white point because there are the different sensitivity between R, G, and B sensor.
Dynamic range controller makes the best use of such sensor information, and provides you the function to compress highlight.
In highlight area, this function makes it possible to be smooth and emphasis gradation until white point and to keep saturation like as a film.

However, you cannot restore the gradation if you take a photograph with overexposure.
It is easy to overexposure if there is high contrast or much brightness delta in the scene.
Then if you take a photograph with a little underexposure, you can record whiter energy than pure white point in the RAW data. And you can resume brightness with "Exposure bias" function and also use this "dynamic range" function.
Please try to take a photograph with a little underexposure, and make wealthy highlight expression with this function.

Please refer to " Method for Effectively Utilizing Dynamic Range" for details.

10.1.9. Proper Use of Sharp in Development Parameters and Unsharp Mask when Developing / Printing

This software includes "Sharp" that can be set as a function to emphasize borders and increase definition, as a development parameter when developing independently for one image, as well as "Unsharp mask" when developing or printing.
The other is "unsharp mask" function for saving developed scenes or printing scenes, which is common parameter for all images same as jpeg quality or print resolution parameters.

"Sharpening" parameter is for each image, and you can adjust the balance of resolution and noise with 100% or more zoom in preview.
On the other hand, unsharp mask is processed uniformly when developing or printing, so depending on the purpose of the photograph, use this for applying additional outline emphasis.

As an example, settings for development processing of a photograph with three uses will be explained.
The first is to develop with the original image resolution for the purpose of saving a general purpose JPEG image file. The second is to reduce the size and develop for uploading to the WEB or viewing on a PC. The third is for printing on a printer for viewing.

For the first purpose, namely, saving a general purpose JPEG image file with the original image resolution, sharpening as a development parameter setting would be suitable. This usage is basic because this usage for recording and saving with the original image resolution in tact is the most basic development processing method.
The second use reduces and saves the photograph. Develop with a setting that applies unsharp mask in order to compensate the feeling of lowered resolution lost when reducing the size.
The third use is development for printing. Resolution is lost from blurs and such from ink on the paper during the printing process. Therefore, set unsharp mask to compensate for a lack of resolution from the printing process.

In this way, sharpness is in the end adjusted as a development parameter in the original resolution, while unsharp mask is designated as an added outline emphasis depending on its usage. It will be unnecessary to readjust development parameters according to purpose.

Appropriate unsharp mask set values will differ depending on the reduction rate and the device for viewing the reduced development results.
As the reduction rate increases, the need to strengthen unsharp mask emerges.
Also, the appropriate quantity changes depending on the size of the display on the device for viewing, and as the display size grows smaller or as the viewing distance gets farther away, the need to strengthen unsharp mask emerges.

It would be convenient to remember that the reduction size and amount of unsharp mask is determined by each device being used.
For example, when viewing on a 50-inch plasma TV, develop a dosage of 70% at an unsharp mask radius of 0.5 for the size contained in the display's dot size (for example, 1366 x 768).
For a slide show on a PC, develop a dosage of 100% at an unsharp mask radius of 0.6 for a size contained within 1024 x 768.
For viewing on a cell phone, develop a dosage of 150% at an unsharp mask radius of 0.6 for a size contained within 320 x 240.
For transferring to a music player, develop a dosage of 200% at an unsharp mask radius of 0.7 for a size contained within 176 x 132.
These are examples of some conditions.
Once appropriate settings are made, you will be able to perform later development processing at almost the same set parameters.

Even when printing, appropriate unsharp mask settings will differ depending on the size of the printing, printer resolution and the paper being used.
You should remember that appropriate unsharp mask settings are driven by each printing condition.

10.2. Photographic Techniques

10.2.1. Photography without Backlight Compensation

When taking a photograph against the sun or the light source without exposure compensation, you have to usually adjust by increasing a "exposure bias" since a subject is taken in underexposure.
Of course, it is better way that you adjust exposure compensation at the time of taking a photograph. However, it takes a time to adjust exposure compensation even if the shutter chance appears suddenly.
If you are taking a photograph in RAW format, give the first priority to the photo opportunity. Because this opportunity will never come again.
In a case of the photograph recorded in RAW format, the "exposure bias" can be post-processed after taking a photograph.
Exposure bias on RAW can be done after taking pictures as well.

When using the camera which has a large-sized sensor with high S/N value and wide dynamic range, you can take a photograph without exposure compensation even if it is a backlight condition.
There is a way to take many photographs by giving the first priority to the photo opportunity. RAW makes such a new photography possible, which was not available in the past.

Because the sensor size of the digital single-lens reflex camera is big and there are many capable cameras, try taking photographs at the minimum ISO film speed and do not worry about backlighting.
And enjoy the exposure bias on SILKYPIX ®.

10.2.2. Should RAW be Photographed in Underexposed?

Some portion is true and some portion is false.
Even in case of taking a photograph in RAW format, the most idealistic way is to take a picture at the maximum exposure level that image sensor linearity can be secured.
Because a noise increases and a picture becomes rough when a photograph is taken in underexposure.

However, there is a case that things do not go that way.

(1) High contrast scene in which a subject is irradiated strongly or a subject is metallic
Some portion will be overexposure even if the correct exposure setting.
In this case, detail of the highlighted portion is not lost by adjusting the exposure bias at the time of development if a photograph was taken in underexposure.

(2) When the correct exposure cannot be determined
You might miss a photo opportunity or spoil the atmosphere of surroundings because you have difficulty in determining the exposure at the time of taking a photograph.
If a photograph is taken in underexposure, an adjustment is available at the time of the development, however, if you lost a part of image you cannot adjust it.

For these reasons, it is said that "RAW should be photographed in underexposure".
As another reason, you can ease a decline of a color reproduction by taking in underexposure.
Please refer to "10.3.2. Linearity and Saturation of Image Sensor".

* For FUJIFILM FinePix S3 / S5 Pro
Low sensitivity pixels on S3 / S5 Pro have only about 1/16 the sensitivity of high sensitivity pixels, so even with lots of exposure you will not easily skip.
1/16 sensitivity differences are equivalent to 4EV, and of that about 2EV strength is used internally to reproduce overexposed parts up to around 2EV more than the brightness usually skipped.
Therefore, there is no need to underexpose, even for subjects with large differences in brightness as introduced here.
However, in the completely saturated area of the high sensitivity (S pixel) sensors, an image is generated with information only of low sensitivity (R pixel), so noise may increase and the gray balance on the outer edges of the image may degrade with a wide-angle lens.
Therefore, avoiding extreme overexposure is safe.

10.2.3. Turning Exposure Compensation Dial into ISO Speed Dial

For dark subjects or speedy subjects being followed with a long lens with focal distance, there are many times when high sensitivity photography is necessary.

It is difficult to take a picture with an insufficient shutter speed even though it is full aperture.
Perhaps, in a situation like that, you increase the ISO speed.

However, changing the ISO film speed can be quite daunting. Not everyone is used to the operations needed to change the ISO speed while taking pictures on a digital camera.
Instead, you can easily operate exposure bias with a method that was used with any camera from the times of film.

Therefore, do not raise the ISO film speed. Adjust the exposure bias dial to underexpose and work the shutter speed and diaphragm! This is a technique allowed only with RAW photography.
In case of taking a photograph by RAW, a sensitization is available at development process, and its result is almost the same as the case of increasing ISO speed on a camera. In some scenes, a result would be much better than that.(*1)
From the time you set to record in a RAW file, the exposure bias dial changes to an ISO speed dial.

*1 Please see "10.1.3. Utilizing Difference between ISO Speed Adjustment of Camera and Exposure Bias of SILKYPIX®".

10.2.4. Appropriate Exposure for RAW Photography

Here, define the term Appropriate Exposure as the optimal exposure which can represent a scene most beautifully.
Note that here, user preferences such as your liking for color deviation in dark region, or for colors just before the highlighted portion goes out and so forth, are excluded.
The appropriate exposure expose the brightest portion of a picture, where its details must not be lost, to the maximum value that linearity of image sensor can be secured.
In other words, the appropriate exposure gives the maximum light quantity that will not cause a lost of the portion on the RAW data.
This exposure allows you to use full of a dynamic range of an image sensor, you can obtain a clean picture with little noise.
Please refer to '10.3.2. Linearity and Saturation of Image Sensor' for more details.

When taking a picture with this exposure, its value is different from the appropriate exposure that an exposure meter indicates.
The exposure that an exposure meter indicates is determined by assuming an average reflectance of a subject. In a case of the RAW photography, adjustment is available at the development. Therefore, the maximum exposure value that the highlighted portion will not be gone is the best.
Although, it is very difficult to determine the exposure.
The best way is that you adjust the exposure until the maximum exposure value after taking a picture. When you do that, use the highlight warning preview mode of a camera to check the picture. Also, adjust the maximum exposure value to the point that highlighted portion will not be gone.
Since the highlight warning preview displays a case of recording it in a JPEG file, for some cases, it is good to give more exposure. It depends on the camera you are using.
Please refer to '10.3.2. Linearity and Saturation of Image Sensor' and '10.3.1. Desensitizing at Development' for more information about these advanced techniques.

10.3. Advanced Techniques

10.3.1. Desensitizing at Development

Regarding the highlighted portion that has gone on the RAW data, even if you execute the desensitizing at the development, the details are not displayed.
However, some cameras can record not only the region represented as white when the exposure bias amount is 0, but also brighter region in RAW data.
In order to check whether your camera can do it or not, do an experiment with this software as shown below.
First, take a picture as the highlighted portion of details that looks brighter continuously will be gone.
Then, adjust the "Exp. bias" slider to the - side. At this time, if you see the details appear on the region which has gone when the "Exp. bias" was set to 0, your camera can record the region which looks more brighter than white in RAW data.
If you execute this experiment carefully, you can find the breaking point from which details of the highlighted portion do not appear at above a certain exposure bias value. (*1)
For example, the detail appears at a value up to -1/2EV. However, it will not appear when the value is more than that.
At this time, this means that your camera has recorded the RAW data with an allowance of 1/2EV.
To put it the other way around, the upper 1/2EV level of sensor's dynamic range has not been used.

In some cameras, such function only works when ISO speed is increased.

Although the highlighted portion will not be gone up to 1/2EV, it is not good to take a picture by using the region fully.
Because linearity may have been lost already in the region.
In order to use the region fully, check a test shooting whether its color representation can be achieved to the level that you satisfy. There is no other way in this case.
If you know techniques up to this level, for example, in a certain subject, you might create a clean picture with little noise by setting the exposure bias amount as 1/2EV.

*1 There is a function to restore the highest using the R, G, B sensitivity differences of sensors in this software. This function will be a hindrance in conducting this experiment, so it is best to confirm that the "Light compensation" in "Highlight controller" sub-controls is "0". In addition, set "Dynamic range" to "0EV" at the same time.
* For FUJIFILM FinePix S3 / S5 Pro
The super CCD honeycomb SRII sensor, arranged with two different kinds of sensitivity sensors in a checkerboard pattern, is installed on S3 / S5.
You can capture an extremely large range of luminance by combining high sensitivity and low sensitivity pixel information.
Therefore, there will be a different appearance if you use a dynamic range mode = WIDE setting on S3 / S5.
Low sensitivity pixels on S3 / S5 Pro have only about 1/16 the sensitivity of high sensitivity pixels, so even with lots of exposure you will not easily skip.
1/16 sensitivity differences are equivalent to 4EV, and of that about 2EV strength can be used. Reproduce overexposed parts up to around 2EV more than the brightness usually skipped.
On this account, there is no need to be overly concerned with overexposure when taking photographs on a WIDE dynamic range with S3 / S5. Using the exposure bias on this software, there is always the possibility of reduced sensitivity development up to around –2EV.

10.3.2. Linearity and Saturation of Image Sensor

An image sensor is made of CCD or CMOS and outputs a signal corresponding to a given light quantity.
However, at a certain level, even the light quantity is increased, the output level of the signal does not increase anymore. This is Saturation.
When saturated, whiteout will transpire in highlighted portions, even when photographed in RAW.

This does not mean that you can use the sensor fully up to right before the saturation occurs.
Degradation of color representation occurs when the given light quantity is out of the region where the output signal is proportional to the light quantity.

Normally a camera is designed to create a JPEG picture with this proportional region.
However, it is not a perfect proportion and it includes allowable range that shows the level that can be allowed at maximum.
If the allowable ranges differ between a camera manufacturer settings and your setting, use your own setting. The difference doesn't mean fault of your camera.
You just try to adjust the exposure bias toward underexposure until the exposure enters in your allowable range.
It is possible to take photographs that have higher color reproduction characteristics by underexposing within an acceptable permissible range.
If you are able to prevent degradation of color representation by taking a picture with underexposure setting, a noise may increase.

Since that is a capability of a camera sensor, you have to find a middle ground between the color representation and the noise.
In a contrary sense, in a case of some subject, you may set the exposure out of the allowable range of a manufacturer setting.

In this case, set overexposure within the range which is described in '10.3.1 Desensitizing at Development', to obtain a clean picture with little noise.
In this case, you can obtain a clean image with little noise by overexposing within the range explained in "Desensitizing at Development".

10.4. Knowledge

10.4.1. Color Temperature and Color Deflection

"Color temperature", which is used to express colors in the light source, will be explained.

An object heated to a high temperature will emit light. We all know that lava erupting from a volcano, iron liquefied in a steel furnace and charcoal used at a barbeque all emit light in colors ranging from orange to dark red.
The color of this heated object varies with the temperature of the object. When an object is heated, gradually raising the temperature, it first begins to shine red. Before long it changes to orange and yellow. As the object continues to heat up, it will burn a bluish white.
When an object's color is expressed as temperature using these properties, the temperature is called the "Color temperature." It is common for the color of the light source to be described as this "Color temperature."

"Color temperature" is defined as the correlation between temperature and color when an idealized body, known as a black body, is heated. Units are in K (Kelvin), or absolute temperature. 0K (absolute zero) = about –273degrees celsius.
Think of sunlight as being an actual representative light source. Because the surface temperature of the sun is about 6000 degrees, the color of the light emitted from the sun is about 6000 degrees Kelvin. In actuality, blue light is gradually dispersed and absorbed as it passes through the atmosphere, and by the time it reaches the Earth's surface, it is observed as a color temperature of around 5,000-5,500K.
Think of a light bulb lit up in a room. The filament in the light bulb is heated to about 2000-3000 degrees and emits light, so the color temperature is about 2000-3000 degrees.

There are light sources that emit light by methods other than simply heating an object to a high temperature so that it will emit light. Such light sources would include fluorescent lamps and mercury lamps.
For these light sources, color is expressed in "color temperature" of the visually closest black body radiator.
To be specific, plot the color of the light source on a CIE 1960 UCS coordinate system and draw a perpendicular line at a right angle to the radioactive locus of the black body from there. The "Color temperature" of that part is used.
All colors on this perpendicular line are said to have the same "color temperature" and this line is called the is temperature line. Furthermore, the deviation of the radioactive locus of the black body, which is the length of this perpendicular line, is called the "color deflection" in this software.

Some digital cameras and color meters express the light source color only as "color temperature," because it is mostly possible to express the light source color for natural light only as "color temperature."
In SILKYPIX, a parameter called "Color deflection" is included so that you can more precisely specify a light source color. You can easily make appropriate adjustments to white balance.

In addition, measuring the slight deviation from black body emissions becomes clearer, because the sunlight that makes it to the surface of the Earth has to pass through the atmosphere and clouds.
The amount of that deflection differs depending on the weather and location, but in terms of CIE 1960 UCS uv distance, it is around 0.003-0.004, and is converted to a color deflection in this software of 3-4.
This is the reason that the color deflection value of the preset white balance in this software is not 0.

10.4.2. Exif Information

Exif information is information from when the camera took the photograph which indicates the characteristics of the image. It is standard in almost all digital cameras.
An outputted file can include the photography information such as shutter speed, aperture, shooting date, Exif thumbnail picture, color space information, and so forth by recording the Exif information can be recorded in the outputted file.
The standard in this software is Exif 2.3, and you can output color space information in a form based on Exif.

This information is effective when handling output files on software compatible with Exif information.
In addition to sRGB color space information, Adobe RGB color information can also be recorded from the Exif 2.21. However, because there is only few software that can support the information, we recommend you to use 'Embedding ICC Profile' when you record color space information.

10.4.3. Files Created Automatically Development Parameter File and Collateral Information File

These are files for storing development parameters, reservations / marks, rotation information, etc. The extensions for "Development parameters" are ".spd."
There are cases when they are automatically created one by one for image files for development and cases they are created explicitly with the "Save Development Parameters" function.
You can restore the status of a saved development parameter by reading the development parameter recorded and saved in the "Development parameters files".

A "Development parameter file" is always automatically created when you edit an image for processing on SILKYPIX. This automatically created "Development parameter file" is automatically read during the next editing and restored to the previous editing status.
The automatically created "Development parameter file" is recorded and saved under a file name such as "file name of image for processing" + ".4.spd" within the "SILKYPIX_DS" sub-folder, which is automatically created in a folder with the file for image processing.
The size of the "Development Parameter File" differs depending on the adjusted development parameters, but it is normally around 10-20KB.
However, when "Spotting tools" are used, it is saved with the file name of "File Name of Image for Processing" + ".6.spf" and may expand to more than several MB.
Develop parameter files are created in a temporary folder if a folder is read-only or creating and changing a "Development Parameter File" is forbidden because an already existing ".spd" file is read-only.
The development parameter file prepared in the temporary folder will be erased when the application is closed. Virtual storage files

SILKYPIX uses its own independent virtual storage files for efficiently processing large amounts of image data.
There are two SILKYPIX virtual storage files called DefaultTCCBSectionNNNN.lck and DefaultTCCBSectionNNNN.vm0 (NNNN is 0000-9999), and these files are created in the temporary folder.
The initial value of the temporary folder is the OS standard temporary folder, but this can be changed through "Save Development Parameters" in "Function settings".
These virtual storage files are automatically created when the software begins and are deleted when the software is closed.

Contents you set through the SILKYPIX setting functions such as "Function settings" and "Display settings" are recorded and saved in environmental setting files.
Environmental setting files are files called "SPDUser1.ini," and are stored within a sub-folder with the product's name, which in turn is created within a sub-folder called "ISL" in the OS standard user folder.

The OS Standard user folder differs for each user of Windows Vista / Windows 7 / Windows 8 / Windows 8.1 / Windows 10, so settings are managed by each user. Temporary file

SILKYPIX uses its own cache function to efficiently process large amounts of image data.
Temporary files are created in a sub-folder called "SILKYPIX_GlobalCache" in the temporary folder, and are stored within folders created in a hierarchical order within that.
The initial temporary folder is the standard temporary folder on your OS, but it is possible to change this with "Save Development Parameters" in "Function settings".
These temporary files are created when reading or editing image files to be developed. Other

SILKYPIX automatically creates folders and files other than those listed above for internal processing, but basically, you do not need to be concerned with them.
These folders and files are created in sub-folders called "ISL" in standard user folders on your OS, and are stored in sub-folders further created under the product's name.

10.4.4. DNG (Digital Negative) format compatibility

In this software, you can develop the DNG (Digital Negative) formatted file (from this onward, it is indicated as DNG).
DNG is the unified standards for RAW data, which is proposed by Adobe Systems Incorporated. By the use of the conversion utility produced by Adobe Systems Incorporated, RAW files of various cameras can be converted to DNG files.
By the use of this utility, you can handle the RAW data that are varied according to a camera as common formatted data.
Please refer to the web sites of Adobe Systems Incorporated for details. DNG Overview

Refer to the DNG Standards, which are on public view by Adobe Systems Incorporated for details. In this section, we explain about DNG in order to help users understand operation of this software.
The DNG consists of the RAW image data taken from an image sensor, the parameters that indicate characteristics of the image data, color representation information, photography information (information when a picture is taken), thumbnail information and so forth.
In addition, it can contain the Linear RAW image data that have information of 3 colors per pixel instead of RAW image data.
In this software, regarding the RAW image data, it is called RAW format. Regarding the Linear RAW image data, it is called Linear RAW format.
When you use the DNG converter, you can select either the RAW format or the Linear RAW format in the optional setting at the time of conversion.

Since the RAW format keeps the color array that an image sensor has, the demosaic process (process to create a color structure) can be done in this software. This contributes to the maximum usage of this software.
Since the Linear RAW format contains data after the demosaic process is done, even in a case of camera with the image sensor's color array which this software cannot handle, it is possible to developed the data by the use of this format.

When the specified white balance is recorded, this information can be recognized as the photography information, and you can use a camera-set value (being set when a picture was taken) as white balance.
Color representation is executed with the color representation information. DNG Files Available with this Software

In the DNG Standards, it is possible to contain RAW data with an array of various image sensors. However, there is a limit for this software when it handles DNG files.
In this section, we explain about the DNG files, which this software can develop.

(1) DNG files with RAW format and Linear Raw format taken with the camera, which is compatible with this software.
In case of the DNG files that are converted form the RAW files taken with the camera that is compatible with this software, it is possible to develop them regardless of a format type, not exclusively to the RAW format and the Linear Raw format(*1)
In addition to the color representation with this software, it is possible to execute the color representation on the basis of the color representation information contained in the DNG files.
You can select a "Color representation" from the "DNG" color profile for reproducing colors based on color reproduction information included in DNG files.
Parameters that have an influence on Demosaic (Demosaicing sharpness settings in the "Development settings" sub-control) cannot be used if in LinearRAW format.

*1 Only LinearRAW formats can be used if a DNG file converted from an RAF file with shooting elements in a honeycomb arrangement such as FUJIFILM FinePix S2 / S3 / S5 Pro.

(2) DNG files with RAW format taken with the camera, which is not compatible with this software.

of DNG files taken with 3 color filters having Bayer pattern such as tetragonal array or rectangular array, it is possible to develop with this software.
Color reproduction is performed by color reproduction information included in DNG.
This software (this version) does not support the RAW format with the array which is not explained the above. So you should convert them to the Linear RAW format.

(3) DNG files with Linear RAW format taken with camera, which is not compatible with this software.

In a case of DNG files taken with 3 color filters having Bayer pattern such as tetragonal array or rectangular array, it is possible to develop with this software. In a case of DNG files taken with 3 color filters, it is possible to develop with this software (There is a case that DNG files taken with the CCD camera of complementary colors system which has 4 or more color filters cannot be handled).
However, since the demosaic process has already been executed, the parameters ("Demosaicing sharpness" in the "Development settings" sub-control) that affect the demosaic process cannot be used.
The color representation is executed on the basis of the color representation information contained in the DNG files.

When you develop the RAW data taken with the camera which has a special array such as a honeycomb array with this software, you should convert them to the DNG files with the Linear RAW format.

(4) Compressed format

DNG Files with compressed format and uncompressed format can be handled.

10.4.5. Color management

A summary of color management and an explanation of color management on SILKYPIX are given here.
Accurately performing color management is necessary for correctly reflecting color adjustments made while looking at the monitor on JPEG / TIFF files and print outs output by SILKYPIX.
One cause of the problem of the "printed photograph and the image seen on the monitor being different" is that color management is not performed correctly.
It is difficult even for specialists in a special environment to accurately perform color management, but please keep in mind that accurate color management to a certain degree is possible for everyone. What is color management?

As the name color management implies, it is "managing" "colors".
Generally, monitors have functions that adjust hues and brightness. Using these functions, you can adjust reds, greens, brightness and darkness. When using your PC for a purpose other than image processing, the correct way to use the monitor is adjusting colors and brightness to make it easy to look at.
However, for PCs that perform image processing, defects may arise if you adjust the monitor the way you like it. This is because if you view images you have processed on another PC or print them out, the colors and brightness displayed on your monitor will not be accurately reproduced.
Color management is a system for managing colors to reproduce the same colors as far as possible, no matter what PC an electronic image is viewed or what printer is used to print it. It is required for image processing.

The keywords for performing color management on SILKYPIX are "color space" and "color profile."
Both are for defining the color space when expressing colors as electronic information. Please think of "color space" as being a name for this definition and "color profile" as the definition of color space.
Basically, the "color spaces" used on SILKYPIX are "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" (*1). These two color spaces are common and widely used in the PC world, but there are many other color spaces defined for other uses and special industries.
Both "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" are color spaces that are defined by RGB (*2). 8bit RGB has values in 256 stages, from 0-255, for each R, G and B element, making it possible to express around 16 million colors, but the way the RGB values are assigned absolute values of colors on color charts differs between "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB." One-turn wide color spaces that cannot be expressed on "sRGB" can be expressed on "Adobe RGB."
So what are the specific differences between "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB"? One way to describe information for each color reproduction is a "color profile." For standardized color spaces like "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB", many image processors, including SILKYPIX, accurately process them even without their color profiles, but for other color spaces, it is common to attach a "color profile" to define the color space.
One large difference between "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" is that the three stimulation values (RGB values of the color space triangle endpoints) shown in the expressible color space are different and these color coordinates are described in the "color profile" of each.
Please refer to ' "sRGB" vs "Adobe RGB"'.

*1 By designating a color profile in the input color space of JPEG / TIFF images and the output color space when storing JPEG / TIFF images, color spaces other than "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" can be used.
*2 A coordinate system other than RGB may define a color space, such as a color space for a printer being CMYK. Color space and color profile

First, we described "color space" as a name. The range of colors that can be handled is determined when the color space is determined.
All electronic devices that handle electronic images have a range (limitation) to the colors they can express. For example, for monitors, the brightest green that can be displayed differs depending on the model of monitor. Of course, the same is true for models of printers, but the range of colors that can be expressed also differs depending on the paper being used.
Not only output devices, but also input devices such as scanners have color ranges of detectable colors that differ depending on the device.
In this way, the color range that can be expressed for each electronic device that handles electronic images has its own independent color space, and a "color profile" is attached as information to define these color spaces, or can be created with a special tool.
"sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" which were first introduced are standardized color spaces and are not things that indicate the range of colors that can be expressed on special electronic devices.

"Color space" is a general word that indicates the method and range of expressions provided by the "color profile." A "color profile" is information that defines the "color space" and specifically exists as a file in a format known as ICC or ICM.

A "color profile" can largely be divided into two types, those that prepare and create for devices (special color space for specific electronic devices) that perform color management and those that define standardized color spaces like "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB."
Color profiles for monitors are called "monitor profiles" on SILKYPIX. It is possible to express accurate colors on a monitor by turning on "Turn on color management" and setting an appropriate "monitor profile" through the display settings.
On SILKYPIX, you can select only RGB-XYZ format or RGB-Lab format as the color profile for your printer. A color profile defined by the CMYK coordinate system cannot be used.

Please refer to " Color management on monitor displays" and " Color management for print output" for details on color management for monitors and printers. Color management performed on SILKYPIX

Color management is performed on SILKYPIX taking the following three items into consideration.

(1) Determine color space (input color space) of images to be developed
When processing RAW data, the characteristics of the RAW data are measured at our company for each type of device. This is equivalent to the color space of the RAW data. RAW data is automatically processed based on this data, so the RAW data's input color space is not necessary.

When processing JPEG / TIFF images, it is necessary to correctly designate the color space recorded for the image. The input data's color space is called "Input color space" on SILKYPIX. (*1)
Basically, two color spaces, sRGB and Adobe RGB, are compatible with SILKYPIX as "Input color spaces". Determining whether to use sRGB or Adobe RGB is based on Exif / DCF information.

If an ICC profile is attached to the JPEG / TIFF image, the color space on the ICC profile is the input color space. In this case, it is possible to designate a color space other than sRGB or Adobe RGB.
SILKYPIX® performs color management using the OS functions. Please note that if an ICC profile incompatible to the OS color management system is attached, colors cannot be reproduced accurately. (*2)

Images that SILKYPIX cannot automatically determine will use sRGB, so please explicitly set the "input color space" manually for cases in which images that are recorded with Adobe RGB cannot be automatically determined.

*1 *1 In addition to "input color space," the color space of images that SILKYPIX outputs is called "output color space." Also, in general, a color space used within software during image processing is called "work color space," but SILKYPIX uses its own wide area "work color space."
*2 On Windows, the PCS (Profile Connection Space) can only designate an ICC profile in XYZ format as the input color space. Colors cannot be correctly reproduced if the PCS has attached a Lab format ICC profile to the JPEG / TIFF image.

(2) Accurate color reproduction on images displayed on monitors by using monitor profiles
If color management is turned on through "Display settings", the designated monitor profile is used and color management on monitor displays is performed. Appropriate monitor profile settings are required to perform correct color reproduction on images displayed on monitors.
Please refer to " Color management on monitor displays" for details.

(3) Designating color space (output color space) when saving JPEG / TIFF development results or when printing output
You can select either "sRGB" or "Adobe RGB" as the color space at output.

When saving to files, the set color space is recorded to the JPEG / TIFF image as a recording format based on Exif 2.3 and DCF 2.0. You can also record ICC profiles as development result save settings.
You can also designate the ICC profile, convert to an output color space other than sRGB / Adobe RGB and output. Please refer to " Output color space" for details.

When printing with a printer, perform appropriate color management with the printer settings. Please refer to " Color management for print output" for details.

Output color space settings will differ depending on the next process and how the output image will be used.
There are cases when "Adobe RGB" is designated when inputting photographs for printing, but you must appropriately make selections according to usage for images that are used by you yourself.
Currently, recognition of color space for handling electronic images on PCs is low. Especially if distributed to a third party that is not designated, it is safe to designate sRGB, including print requests on DPE and Web exhibitions.
As for image data saved with Adobe RGB, correct color management will not be performed on following processes and colors cannot be accurately reproduced.

(4) Color profiles compatible with SILKYPIX
SILKYPIX performs color management using the color management functions installed on the OS.
(Windows Vista/Windows 7/Windows 8/Windows 8.1/Windows 10=ICM2.0/WCS, Mac OS X=ColorSync)

Therefore, color profiles of a format not supported by the OS cannot be used on SILKYPIX.(*1)

*1 There are cases in which other company's software may be independently compatible even with color profiles of a format not supported by the OS.
Please understand that there are other color profiles that can be used on other company's graphic software and manufacturer's development software that cannot be used on SILKYPIX. Color management on monitor displays

When processing images with SILKYPIX, you adjust colors and brightness looking at the monitor. Naturally, if the colors displayed on the monitor are not correct, the adjusted results will not be accurately reflected on the development results.
It is desirable to set appropriate conditions for your monitor and create a color profile for the monitor you use with special tools in order to display colors on your monitor as accurately as possible.
There are cases in which monitor profiles (monitor color profiles) measured and created in advance by the manufacturer are included on recent monitors. Even if you cannot create a color profile with special tools, you can mostly reproduce correct colors by using these.
If no monitor color profile is included and you do not have tools for creating one, use monitor settings to make adjustments so that you can reproduce colors as accurately as possible.

Make adjustments to the monitor display using a method as highly ranked as possible from those listed below. As a monitor unit, make adjustments so that colors will be displayed as accurately as possible.

(1) Select "sRGB" or "Adobe RGB" mode if the monitor allows color space settings.
Many types of devices have only an "sRGB" setting because monitors that allow "Adobe RGB" settings are monitors for image processing and expensive.

(2) For monitors that allow color temperature settings, please select 6500K.
Many monitor standard settings are above 9000K, and white is displayed as a blue-white.

(3) If color adjustments are possible by adjusting R, G, B, display white and gray and adjust so that white and gray can be accurately reproduced.

Next, select a monitor profile appropriate to that monitor. Acquire a monitor profile using a method as highly ranked as possible.

(A) If you have special tools for creating a monitor profile, follow the instructions for the tools, calibrate your monitor and create a monitor profile.
(B) Sometimes a monitor profile created by the manufacturer is included or released on the Web. Please use such a monitor profile if available.
In this case, it is necessary to make the monitor designated settings. If you make adjustments to color and brightness as you like, color management cannot be appropriately performed.
(C) If you cannot acquire a monitor profile using any of the above methods, select an existing ICC profile that fits the first monitor adjustments.
If you do not really understand, it is safe to select the sRGB ICC profile (sRGB IEC 61966-2.1)

SILKYPIX default values are set with color management on and use the OS standard monitor profile.
Please refer to " Monitor profile" for setting monitor profiles. Color management for print output

There are two ways for SILKYPIX to perform color management for print output.

One is a method for performing color management on the printer without SILKYPIX performing color management that takes the printer into consideration.
In this case, the color space on the image transmitted to the printer is designated as sRGB or Adobe RGB by SILKYPIX.
In order to perform color management on the printer, it is necessary to make settings using printer settings so that these color space images print correctly.
Many printers have default settings that make automatic corrections and print with memory colors. In order to correctly reproduce colors, it is necessary to turn on color management and make sure that the color space of the printed image matches the color space that SILKYPIX outputs.
Please refer to your printer's manual concerning printer settings.

Another method is to perform color management in which SILKYPIX takes the print output into consideration.
In this case, it is necessary to make appropriate print color space settings with SILKYPIX's detailed printer settings.
Using the ICC profile that the printer maker and paper manufacturer provides is the best method for performing color management. The ICC profile you should select differs according to the combination of printer and paper you use.
Please refer to information that the printer maker and paper manufacturer provides concerning the way to select the best ICC profile.
One important note is that if you print using this method, it is necessary to use the printer settings to set a mode so that the printer will not make color corrections. If the printer makes color corrections, the color correction process will duplicate that of SILKYPIX and colors will not be accurately reproduced.
Please see your printer's manual concerning printer settings. Restrictions to color management

Even with the most accurate color management, there are limitations to color management and things do not always go as you plan.

(1) Limitations to display device
The range of colors available on many monitors is to the degree of sRGB. Monitors that can display all or most of the Adobe RGB color gamut are expensive monitors for image processing.
Please understand that if you set the output color space to "Adobe RGB" and edit images, there are color gamuts that cannot be expressed on the monitor.
For example, with sRGB, RGB = (255, 0, 0) but with Adobe RGB, RGB = (219, 0, 0). If displaying on a monitor that cannot display anything but the sRGB color gamut, the Adobe RGB deep, pure red will display a gradation of RGB = (0, 0, 0)-(219, 0, 0), but over that, (219, 0, 0)-(255, 0, 0), will all show the same color.
Similarly, the sRGB green maximum value of RGB = (0, 255, 0) is RGB = (144, 255, 60) with Adobe RGB. Greens have an extremely large color gamut that cannot be displayed.

When compared with printing devices, the color gamut available for display on light-emitting devices like monitors is greatly different. Therefore, even if appropriate color management is possible, colors will differ more or less when compared to print output.

If you are using a monitor for image processing, color management is taken into consideration and the setting method is probably included in the manual, but unfortunately, many monitors do not take color management into consideration.
Liquid crystal monitors are such that they are especially not suited to image processing as colors cannot be accurately reproduced and tone expressions are not smooth.
Even if monitor profiles are applied, the problem of a lack of gradation cannot be solved. Rather, turning on color management may have ironic results such as accentuating tone sharpness.

(2) Limitations to printing devices
The evolution of recent printers has been tremendous. The quality of inkjet printers for home use makes it difficult to distinguish if it is better compared to silver-salt printing.
However, the available color gamut differs depending on the type of printing, including silver-salt. Inkjet printers are good at expressing bright colors while silver-salt printing is good at expressing darker colors.
In either case, when comparing to light-emitting devices such as monitors, the ability to reproduce colors with high saturation is remarkably inferior. No matter how much appropriate color management is performed, there are many colors that cannot be expressed on printed items but which are available on the monitor.

Furthermore, as mentioned earlier, colors differ more or less when comparing images displayed on a monitor. This is so not just because the available color gamut of each differs, but also because differences in reflective colors and characteristics of light emitting colors are influenced.
Reflective colors such as on printed matter are strongly influenced by the source of light. White paper may look yellowish if viewed under a light bulb, but bluish if viewed under a fluorescent lamp.
The standard light source for sRGB / Adobe RGB is 6500K, so if you check hues of printed matters from a printer, it would be ideal for you to perform this under a light source of 6500K, but that would be difficult. "sRGB" vs "Adobe RGB"

Recent digital single-lens reflex cameras record and save JPEGs based on Exif 2.3 / DCF 2.0 and "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" are available as selections for the color space.
What is a good way to distinguish between "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB"?

The biggest difference when comparing the two color spaces "sRGB" and "Adobe RGB" is the difference in the available range of the color gamut. "Adobe RGB" covers a larger color gamut than "sRGB." "Adobe RGB" has a particularly vivid range of emerald green and can express the greens of trees and blues of the oceans in a way that "sRGB" cannot.
Also, please understand that though it may seem that "Adobe RGB" is superior, there are some disadvantages and it is necessary to be mindful of them when using it.
First, there are few monitors that can display the entire gamut of "Adobe RGB", and if photographs from these gamuts are viewed on normal monitors, it will seem as if the gradation has degraded and become thick. It is necessary to use a monitor that is compatible with "Adobe RGB" or print and check hues when outputting with "Adobe RGB".
In addition, color management on the monitor is indispensable for accurately displaying "Adobe RGB" images on the monitor. If you view "Adobe RGB" images on a monitor that has not had accurate color management performed, hues will look darker than reality. If you perform color management in this kind of environment and view in a correct environment, you will see some considerably glaring hues. Please note that many problems of incompatible colors caused by not performing accurate color management are reported.

Most photographs are satisfied with a color gamut available with "sRGB". If an image satisfied by "sRGB" is recorded in "Adobe RGB", the range of colors is naturally covered, but you will lose color gradation. The number of colors expressed when recorded in 8bit RGB, whether in "sRGB" or "Adobe RGB", is around 16 million. It can be said that "Adobe RGB," which covers a larger color gamut, has intervals that are course, while "sRGB" is smoother.
The three endpoints of "sRGB" (absolute R, G, B) are the RGB color coordinates, (255, 0, 0), (0, 255, 0) and (0, 0, 255) respectively. When these absolute colors are expressed in "Adobe RGB", they become (219, 0, 0), (144, 255, 60) and (0, 0, 250). If recorded in 16bit TIFF, it is not necessary to pay much attention to gradation, but please understand that in 8bit, you will greatly sacrifice gradation.

If your chief usage is viewing on PC monitors or distributing to unspecified third parties, output in "sRGB" is recommended. Images are generally treated as "sRGB" on environments that have not had color management performed on them.
If "Adobe RGB" is designated as the format for inputting data, there may not be any choice, but as for outputs in "Adobe RGB", accurate color management functioning is a condition for all later processing. Accurate color management must be performed, not only on your PC environment, but also on the environment of third parties to whom "Adobe RGB" images circulate.
Please note that thoughtlessly switching settings to "Adobe RGB" can be the source of trouble. Troubleshooting

The cause and measures against some typical problems related to color management will be related here.

(1) Colors differ between displaying the same image on a monitor with SILKYPIX and with other software
Color management settings on monitors with SILKYPIX and with comparable software are different.
Either color management on both sides will be off or both will be on and set the same monitor profiles so that the same color will be displayed.
In order to display accurate colors, color management on both sides must be on and appropriate monitor profiles set.

(2) Colors differ between images displayed on the monitor and results printed on the printer with SILKYPIX
Unfortunately, it is not possible to get two output results that are in complete accord, but if there are huge differences, there is a high probability that color management has not been correctly set somewhere. Try checking in the following order.

a) Has the monitor color management been appropriately performed?
It is desirable to use monitor profiles calibrated and created with special tools, but it is possible to reproduce good colors by using the monitor profiles for the type of device you use that the manufacturer provides.
If you purchased your PC as a set and your PC has an integrated monitor, there are cases when a monitor profile is set in advance, but please note that there are many cases when default values are not accurately set. As long as you do not designate a monitor profile for the monitor you are using, accurate color displays will be difficult.
Calibrating monitors is the first step in color management. If you are aiming for accurate color reproduction, prepare some monitor calibration tools.

b) Has the printer color management been appropriately performed?
There are two kinds of methods capable of printer color management with SILKYPIX.
If settings for color management are made with SILKYPIX, you must set the status (= no corrections, corrections off, etc.) so that corrections are not made on the printer side.
If settings for color management are made on the printer side, it is necessary to make settings using printer settings so that images output in "sRGB" or "Adobe RGB" are printed reproducing accurate colors.

Please note that if processing occurs on both SILKYPIX and the printer, accurate results cannot be achieved.
Please refer to your printer's manual concerning printer settings.

c) Be mindful of environmental light
When looking at printed matters, hues are influenced by the surrounding lights (electric lights and sun light). When viewing printed matters under light bulbs or fluorescent lamps, they look different depending on the color temperature of the surrounding light.
Monitor displays are also influenced by the surrounding light, but since the influence is less than that on printed matters, the way you see colors will differ even when compared under the same light source.
In order to accurately view colors, it is necessary to view them under a surrounding light of 6500K (a cloudy day outdoors). It is difficult to actually view printed matters under these conditions, but if viewed in surrounding light other than this, it is necessary to make comparisons keeping in mind that colors will differ by that much.

d) Limitations through differences between light emitting devices and reflecting colors
Monitors are light emitting devices. Colors are shown through light's three primary colors (RGB). Printed matters are items viewed as colors reflected from the surrounding light. Colors are shown through colors' three primary colors (CMY). So to begin with there is a difference in the way we look at different methods to express colors.
Furthermore, the color gamut available on a monitor is different from that available on a printer. The difference in ability to express bright color and darker colors is big, and unfortunately no matter how precise you perform color management, there are limitations to color agreement.
Basically, color differences from this cause cannot be avoided. In order to minimize differences as much as possible, use a monitor for image processing that is capable of Adobe RGB, use a device that has as high ability as possible to reproduce colors on a printer and use the best printing paper.

When pursuing color management, it will inevitably cost a certain amount.
However, seeking after actual precise color management is limited to the business world, such as the printing business. To begin with, if images are to be viewed by third parties, it is impossible to know under what surrounding light they will be viewed. Generally, it is not necessary to be that particular about color reproduction.
What is important is performing color management within the available range and putting colors together in a range that is permissible after recognizing that differences in reproducing colors will result in differences in viewing.

(3) A tone jump (contour like band of colors = Mach band) can be seen on an image displayed on the monitor with SILKYPIX.
If a tone jump is seen on the monitor display but not on printed matters, it is possible that the monitor display has reached its limits.

If a grayscale (a gray gradation pattern) is seen on a monitor that has not had color management appropriately performed, colors other than gray may be seen. It may seem there are shades of green or magenta due to a light shade of gray.
In addition, if a similar grayscale is observed, colors should change in uniform stages from dark (=0) to light (=255), but there are places where colors suddenly shift, or on the other hand, places where colors do not change and cases in which gradation is not uniformly changed.
This is a phenomenon that can be seen in a comparatively high number of liquid crystal monitors, which are not for image processing. If you are using this kind of monitor, there are times when the problem of gradated expression of colors cannot be solved, but remains even if the monitor has been calibrated.
(By correctly calibrating the monitor, seeing colors other than gray in the grayscale will be cancelled. Also, the problem of gradated expression will disappear if the device is a monitor for image processing and the calibration results are reflected in the monitor.)

10.4.6. Thermal Runaway

Thermal Runaway means that a CPU cannot handle a micro-processing task correctly because of heat. Just as its literal sense, a CPU runs recklessly.
In some cases, Blue-Back (an error message is displayed on a blue screen) occurs or a PC itself resets for protection from heat or power turns off.

If such symptoms occur, you have to suspect this thermal runaway.
If such symptoms occur while executing this software, we recommend you to refer to ' Develop slowly' and check whether the cause is thermal runaway or not. Then take measures to cope with this trouble.


Copyright (C) 2004-2016, Ichikawa Soft Laboratory Co.,Ltd. All rights reserved.